Using a high-resolution, high-dynamic bandwidth capacitive force transducer and two piezoelectric actuators, adhesive pull-off forces between nominally flat rough silicon surfaces were measured under various dynamic conditions in normal and tangential directions and environmental humidity levels. The upper specimen approached and retracted with a constant velocity in the vertical (normal) direction, while the lower specimen started moving in the horizontal (tangential) direction during the middle of the contact. The experiments were performed under 35 and 60% relative humidity conditions. It was found that sliding of the contacting surfaces led to a significant reduction in pull-off forces under low-humidity contact conditions, whereas it caused higher pull-off forces under partially wet contact conditions. Comparing the effects of sliding velocity and sliding distance on the measured pull-off force values, it was found that the sliding distance played an important role in the increase in pull-off forces.
- dynamic adhesion
- rough surfaces