A state-level survey was conducted across major row-crop production regions of Texas to document the level of sensitivity of Palmer amaranth to glyphosate, atrazine, pyrithiobac, tembotrione, fomesafen, and dicamba. Between 137 and 161 Palmer amaranth populations were evaluated for sensitivity to the labelled field rate (1X), and rated as resistant (≤49% injury), less sensitive (50% to 89% injury), or susceptible (90% to 100% injury). For glyphosate, 62%, 19%, 13%, and 13% of the populations from the High Plains, Central Texas, Rio Grande Valley, and Lower Gulf Coast, respectively, were resistant. Resistance to atrazine was more common in Palmer amaranth populations from the High Plains than in other regions, with 16% of the populations resistant and 22% less sensitive. Approximately 90% of the populations from the High Plains that exhibited resistance to atrazine POST also were resistant to atrazine PRE. Of the 160 populations tested for pyrithiobac, approximately 99% were resistant or less sensitive, regardless of the region. No resistance was found to fomesafen, tembotrione, or dicamba. However, 22% of the populations from the High Plains were less sensitive to 1X (93 g ai ha-1) tembotrione, but were killed at 2X, illustrating the background variability in sensitivity to this herbicide. For dicamba, three populations, all from the High Plains, exhibited less sensitivity at the 1X rate (controlled at the 2X rate; 1X = 560 g ae ha-1). One population exhibited multiple resistance to three herbicides with distinct sites of action (SOAs) involving acetolactate synthase, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase, and photosystem II inhibitors. Palmer amaranth populations exhibited less sensitivity to approximately 15 combinations of herbicides involving up to five SOAs. Dose-response assays conducted on the populations most resistant to glyphosate, pyrithiobac, or atrazine indicated they were 30-, 32-, or 49-fold or more resistant to these herbicides, respectively, compared with a susceptible standard.
- dose response
- multiple-herbicide resistance
- recurrent selection
- resistance survey
- site of action