Reniform nematode (RN, Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford & Oliveira) has emerged as one of the most important plant parasitic nematodes of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Planting resistant varieties is the most effective strategy for nematode management. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for RN resistance in an exotic soybean line, PI 438489B, using two linkage maps constructed from the Universal Soybean Linkage Panel (USLP 1.0) and next-generation whole-genome resequencing (WGRS) technology. Two QTL controlling RN resistance were identified—the soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines) resistance gene GmSNAP18 at the rhg1 locus and its paralog GmSNAP11. Strong association between resistant phenotype and haplotypes of the GmSNAP11 and GmSNAP18 was observed. The results indicated that GmSNAP11 possibly could have epistatic effect on GmSNAP18, or vice versa, with the presence of a significant correlation in RN resistance of rhg1-a GmSNAP18 vs. rhg1-b GmSNAP18. Most importantly, our preliminary data suggested that GmSNAP18 and GmSNAP11 proteins physically interact in planta, suggesting that they belong to the same pathway for resistance. Unlike GmSNAP18, no indication of GmSNAP11 copy number variation was found. Moreover, gene-based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were developed for rapid detection of RN or SCN resistance at these loci. Our analysis substantiates synergic interaction between GmSNAP11 and GmSNAP18 genes and confirms their roles in RN as well as SCN resistance. These results could contribute to a better understanding of evolution and subfunctionalization of genes conferring resistance to multiple nematode species and provide a framework for further investigations.