Disease Emergence in Multi-Patch Stochastic Epidemic Models with Demographic and Seasonal Variability

Kaniz Fatema Nipa, Linda J.S. Allen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Factors such as seasonality and spatial connectivity affect the spread of an infectious disease. Accounting for these factors in infectious disease models provides useful information on the times and locations of greatest risk for disease outbreaks. In this investigation, stochastic multi-patch epidemic models are formulated with seasonal and demographic variability. The stochastic models are used to investigate the probability of a disease outbreak when infected individuals are introduced into one or more of the patches. Seasonal variation is included through periodic transmission and dispersal rates. Multi-type branching process approximation and application of the backward Kolmogorov differential equation lead to an estimate for the probability of a disease outbreak. This estimate is also periodic and depends on the time, the location, and the number of initial infected individuals introduced into the patch system as well as the magnitude of the transmission and dispersal rates and the connectivity between patches. Examples are given for seasonal transmission and dispersal in two and three patches.

Original languageEnglish
Article number152
JournalBulletin of Mathematical Biology
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2020


  • Branching process
  • Epidemic
  • Patch model
  • Stochastic model
  • Time-nonhomogeneous


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