Digital anthropometry via three-dimensional optical scanning: evaluation of four commercially available systems

Grant M. Tinsley, M. Lane Moore, Jacob R. Dellinger, Brian T. Adamson, Marqui L. Benavides

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Background: Digital anthropometry is increasingly accessible due to commercial availability of three-dimensional optical scanners (3DO). Methods: One hundred and seventy-nine participants were assessed by four 3DO systems (FIT3D®, Size Stream®, Styku®, and Naked Labs®) in duplicate, air displacement plethysmography (ADP), and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Test–retest precision was evaluated, and validity of total and regional volumes was established. Results: All scanners produced precise estimates, with root mean square coefficient of variation (RMS-%CV) of 1.1–1.3% when averaged across circumferences and 1.9–2.3% when averaged across volumes. Precision for circumferences generally decreased in the order of: hip, waist and thigh, chest, neck, and arms. Precision for volumes generally decreased in the order of: total body volume (BV), torso, legs, and arms. Total BV was significantly underestimated by Styku® (constant error [CE]: −10.1 L; root mean square error [RMSE]: 10.5 L) and overestimated by Size Stream® (CE: 8.0 L; RMSE: 8.3 L). Total BV did not differ between ADP and FIT3D® (CE: −3.9 L; RMSE: 4.2 L) or DXA BV equations (CE: 0–1.4 L; RMSE: 0.7–1.5 L). Torso volume was overestimated and leg and arm volumes were underestimated by all 3DO. No total or regional 3DO volume estimates exhibited equivalence with reference methods using 5% equivalence regions, and proportional bias of varying magnitudes was observed. Conclusions: All 3DO produced precise anthropometric estimates, although variability in specific precision estimates was observed. 3DO BV estimates did not exhibit equivalence with reference methods. Conversely, DXA-derived total BV exhibited superior validity and equivalence with ADP.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1054-1064
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2020


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