Differences in the morale of older, rural widows and widowers

J. P. Scott, V. R. Kivett

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9 Scopus citations


The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of sex differences on the morale of older widowed individuals. It was hypothesized that when the direct and indirect effects of several background and intervening variables were isolated, sex would have a significant association with morale and that widowers would be more adversely affected. The sample (N = 257) included rural widows and widowers aged sixty-five to ninety-four years who were selected by a compact cluster sampling technique. Sex of respondent was not found to affect morale; however, perceived financial status and self-rated health had significant direct effects. Widows and widowers reporting higher morale were those who had higher perceived financial status and rated their health as good. Education had a significant positive effect on morale via health and financial status. Economic and physical resources appear to be more influential determinants of the widowed older adults' morale than sex differences.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)121-136
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Aging and Human Development
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1985


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