Dietary fatty acids alter HDL cholesterol concentrations presumably through mechanisms related to reverse cholesterol transport. The effect of dietary fats (coconut oil, butter, traditional stick margarine, soybean oil, canola oil) differing in fatty acid profile on this antiatherogenic process was assessed with respect to plasma lipids; exogenous and endogenous lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP), phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activities; and LCAT, apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and scavenger receptor B class-1 (SR-B1) mRNA abundance. Golden-Syrian hamsters were fed a nonpurified (6.25 g/100 g fat) diet containing an additional 10 g/100 g experimental fat and 0.1 g/100 g cholesterol for 6 wk. Canola and soybean oils significantly lowered serum HDL cholesterol concentrations relative to butter. Canola oil, relative to butter, resulted in higher exogenous LCAT activity, and both soybean and canola oils significantly increased hepatic apo A-I and SR-B1 mRNA abundance. Butter, relative to margarine, coconut and soybean oils, significantly increased serum non-HDL cholesterol concentrations. Endogenous and exogenous LCAT, CETP, and PLTP activities did not differ in hamsters fed margarine or saturated fat diets, despite lower hepatic LCAT, apo A-I, and SR-B1 mRNA abundance, suggesting that changes in available substrate and/or modification to the LCAT protein may have been involved in lipoprotein changes. These results suggest that lower HDL cholesterol concentrations, as a result of canola and soybean oil feeding, may not be detrimental due to increases in components involved in the reverse cholesterol transport process in these hamsters and may retard the progression of atherosclerosis.
- Apolipoprotein A-I
- Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase
- Lipid transfer
- Reverse cholesterol transport
- Scavenger receptor B class 1