Development and validation of a model for training equine phlebotomy and intramuscular injection skills

Julie A. Williamson, John J. Dascanio, Undine Christmann, Jason W. Johnson, Bradley Rohleder, Lydia Titus

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Simulation in veterinary education offers a solution for bridging the gap between observation and performance of clinical skills. An equine neck model was created that allows repetitive practice of jugular phlebotomy, intramuscular (IM) injection, and intravenous catheterization. The aim of this study was to validate the model for jugular phlebotomy and IM injection. We surveyed experienced veterinarians on the model's realism and the comprehensiveness of its features. In a randomized experimental study, we compared the learning outcomes of first-year veterinary students trained on the model (n = 48) and students trained on equine head-neck cadavers (n = 45). There was no difference in post-training performance of phlebotomy on the live horse between cadavertrained students and model-trained students when assessed by a checklist (cadaver 6.87e0.33; model 6.89e0.77; p = .99) or a global rating scale (cadaver 5.23e0.87; model 5.32e0.77; p = .78). No difference was found between post-training scores for IM injection when assessed by checklist (cadaver 6.87e0.34; model 6.89e0.31; p = .76) or global rating scale (cadaver 5.23e0.87; model 5.32e0.77; p = .75). Veterinarians (n = 7) found this low-fidelity model acceptable and supported its use as a training tool for veterinary students. Students reported in a post-lab survey that they felt models were as helpful as cadavers for learning the procedures. These results support the use of the model as a component of first-year veterinary student curriculum.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)235-242
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Veterinary Medical Education
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1 2016


  • Cadaver training
  • Clinical skills training
  • Equine intramuscular injection
  • Equine intravenous
  • Equine phlebotomy
  • Model training
  • Veterinary simulation


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