In this new century, nanotechnology has evolved from a novel concept to an integral aspect of product advancement. With an increasing presence of nanomaterials in commercial products, more concern about the impact of nanomaterials on human health and also the environment has been considered and evaluated. Fullerenes (C60), have been studied in several different areas and applied widely. Wider application of fullerenes into different products in the recent decades has increased the potential of fullerene releases into the environment. Fullerene research involves physical and chemical characteristics, toxicity, environment fate, and interaction with other pollutions. However, few studies have addressed fullerene quantification in solid matrices. Standardized artificial sediment was prepared following OECD guideline 225, and extracted C60 was quantified by HPLC-UV. A normal shaking method was employed for extraction for two times. Extracts were concentrated and analyzed. Recovery results revealed up to 90.7 ± 4.5%, 90.0 ± 3.8%, 93.8 ± 5.4%, respectively for 1.62, 0.65, and 0.32 μg/g C60 in dry sediment, which shows no significant difference between different concentration levels. Furthermore, extraction efficiency did not show significant difference while using TelfonTM tubes (96.5 ± 6.0%) or silanized glass vessels (90.7 ± 4.5%). This indicated that relative low cost is required for the method to be initially started in any lab. This technique has also been applied in the determination of C60 in sediment samples collected after a 10 day benthic exposure study. Extraction precision has been increased from 4.5% (S.D.) as the validation value up to 15.4% (RSD%) or more. The increased inhomogeneity by bioturbation and matrix complexity of the sediment after the toxicity test could both lower the extraction precision.
- Artificial sediment