Detection of apoptosis: A review of conventional and novel techniques

Michelle M. Martinez, Randall D. Reif, Dimitri Pappas

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

79 Scopus citations


Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, has been shown to play a role in a number of diseases, including heart disease and cancer. Apoptosis is also a vital cellular process that helps to regulate tissue growth, fetal development, immune response, and a host of other biological processes. Deviation from the careful regulation of apoptosis is responsible for a host of diseases and health concerns. As such, understanding the process of apoptosis is vital for therapy development. Over the years, a number of methods have been discovered and developed to detect apoptosis. There are several standard techniques such as electron microscopy, the TUNEL assay, and flow cytometry. In addition, new techniques are quickly emerging, such as microfluidic devices, single molecule spectroscopy, and electrochemical methods. This review will cover some examples of the most common techniques as well as some new techniques in order to show the broad spectrum of methods available to detect apoptosis in cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)996-1004
Number of pages9
JournalAnalytical Methods
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2010


Dive into the research topics of 'Detection of apoptosis: A review of conventional and novel techniques'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this