Design of land application systems for water reuse

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Water reuse via land application is old technology; but the water balance only design approach and practice has not worked well. There are many benefits of water reuse by irrigating crops; however, there are some risks if not designed properly. When the design approach uses a combined water-nutrient-salt balance, the most effective and sustainable, long-term system is achieved. This approach provides a design based on land area requirements, on-site water storage, and economic return from the irrigated crops. The single, most often overlooked step in the water balance is accounting for the water stored in the soil. When spread over large areas, this quantity of water results in considerably less required surface water storage, which saves capital costs. This design approach has been used successfully on multiple sites for over 30 years without failure.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2120
JournalWater (Switzerland)
Issue number15
StatePublished - Aug 2021


  • Beneficial use
  • Irrigation
  • Mass balance
  • Recycle
  • Wastewater


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