Design for manufacture and design for 'X': Concepts, applications, and perspectives

Tsai C. Kuo, Samuel H. Huang, Hong C. Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

303 Scopus citations


The implementations of design for assembly and design for manufacture (DFM) led to enormous benefits including simplification of products, reduction of assembly and manufacturing costs, improvement of quality, and reduction of time to market. More recently, environmental concerns required that disassembly and recycling issues should be considered during the design stages. The effort to reduce total life-cycle costs for a product through design innovation is becoming an essential part of the current manufacturing industry. Therefore, researchers begin to focus their attention on design for environment, design for recyclability, design for life-cycle (DFLC), etc. These studies are sometimes referred to as Design for X (DFX). Since the late 1990s, hundreds of papers have been published pertaining to DFX applications in manufacturing. Most of them are widely distributed over many different disciplines and publications. This makes it very difficult for one to locate all the information necessary for the application of DFX in manufacturing. A paper that can help researchers and practitioners applying this emerging technology is highly desirable. The objective of this paper is to present the concepts, applications, and perspectives of 'DFX' in manufacturing, thus providing some guidelines and references for future research and implementation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)241-260
Number of pages20
JournalComputers and Industrial Engineering
Issue number3
StatePublished - Dec 2001


  • Design for X
  • Design for disassembly
  • Design for life-cycle
  • Design for manufacture

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