Definitions of "knowing": Comparison of verbal report versus performance of children's songs

Janice N. Killian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


This study explored variations in the definition of "knowing" by comparing third-graders' (n = 31) and adults' (n = 31) verbal recognition of song titles with their ability to sing the same songs. Data consisted of number of song titles recognized and number of songs actually sung, as well as subjects' pitch accuracy, word accuracy, and starting pitches. Results indicated a moderate positive correlation between titles circled and songs sung. Adults attempted to sing significantly more songs than did children, and word and pitch accuracy were not significantly related for either group. No significant differences were found on number of titles circled, on pitch accuracy, or on word accuracy. Adults' operant starting pitches were significantly lower than those of children, and both children and adults discriminated among songs when choosing a starting pitch.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)215-228
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Research in Music Education
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1996


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