Cutaneous immunization: an evolving paradigm in influenza vaccines

Harvinder Gill, S. M. Kang, F. S. Quan, R. W. Compans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


INTRODUCTION: Most vaccines are administered by intramuscular injection using a hypodermic needle and syringe. Some limitations of this procedure include reluctance to be immunized because of fear of needlesticks, and concerns associated with the safe disposal of needles after their use. Skin delivery is an alternate route of vaccination that has potential to be painless and could even lead to dose reduction of vaccines. Recently, microneedles have emerged as a novel painless approach for delivery of influenza vaccines via the skin. AREAS COVERED: In this review, we briefly summarize the approaches and devices used for skin vaccination, and then focus on studies of skin immunization with influenza vaccines using microneedles. We discuss both the functional immune response and the nature of this immune response following vaccination with microneedles. EXPERT OPINION: The cutaneous administration of influenza vaccines using microneedles offers several advantages: it is painless, elicits
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)615-27
JournalExpert Opin Drug Deliv
StatePublished - 2014


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