The purpose of this study was to explore attitudes toward the division of fathers' and mothers' participation in childcare/household tasks through a multilevel modeling approach. Data from the Euro-barometer surveys, including over 10,000 respondents from 13 European countries, were used. Respondents' attitudes were related to several individual- and macro-level factors. At the individual level (based on a separate regression equation for each country), it was found that respondents were most likely to hold egalitarian attitudes toward household work and childcare when they were younger, female, and politically liberal. At the macro level, countries' United Nations ratings on women's empowerment, Gross National Product, and cultural individualism were related to egalitarian attitudes. Study implications, strengths and weaknesses, and suggestions for future research are discussed.
- Household labor
- Multilevel modeling