The objective of this study was to determine the effects of enhancing cow subprimals on tenderness, palatability, and retail caselife compared with nonenhanced cow and USDA Select subprimals. Strip loin, top sirloin butt, and ribeye subprimals were selected (n = 60 per subprimal; n = 40 cow, n = 20 USDA Select). At 14 d postmortem, one-half of the cow product was randomly selected for enhancement with phosphate, salt, rosemary, potassium lactate, beef stock, ice, and water using a needle injector. All subprimals were fabricated on d 14 postmortem into ten 2.54-cm steaks. Steaks were assigned to analysis for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), trained sensory panel evaluation, or simulated retail display and assigned randomly to aging periods of 14, 21, or 28 d postmortem. Warner- Bratzler shear force values of ribeye steaks from the nonenhanced cow over all aging groups were significantly greater (P < 0.05) than enhanced cow and USDA Select ribeyes. Furthermore, top sirloin butts from nonenhanced cow had greater (P < 0.05) WBSF values at 14 and 28 d compared with other treatments. Nonenhanced cow strip loin steaks had greater (P < 0.05) WBSF values (4.58 ± 0.15 kg) and greater (P < 0.05) cook loss (20.70 ± 0.68 kg) than enhanced cow (3.90 ± 0.14 kg; 14.32 ± 0.69 kg) and USDA Select steaks (3.09 ± 0.14 kg; 15.01 ± 0.68 kg). Sensory data revealed that enhanced cow steaks from all subprimals were greater (P < 0.05) for initial juiciness for both aging periods, compared with nonenhanced cow and USDA Select. Sensory tenderness ratings for enhanced cow and USDA Select subprimals were greater (P < 0.05) than nonenhanced subprimals. Nonenhanced subprimals received the largest connective tissue amount score by panelists (P < 0.05). Enhanced cow steaks from all 3 subprimals had a greater intensity (P < 0.05) for salty flavor. Panelists detected a more intense (P < 0.05) soapy flavor in enhanced ribeyes. In ribeye and top sirloin butt steaks, grassy/cowy flavor was more intense (P < 0.05) in nonenhanced cow steaks compared with enhanced and Select. Subjective color scores revealed USDA Select ribeye and strip loin steaks aged 14 d were darker red (P < 0.05) when compared with 21- and 28-d aged steaks. Nonenhanced cow steaks from all 3 subprimals had the greatest amount (P < 0.05) of surface discoloration during display. Enhanced cow strip loins had the least (P < 0.05) L* and b* values over all aging periods, while USDA Select strip loins at 28 d had the least (P < 0.05) a* value. The USDA Select top sirloin butt steaks had the greatest (P < 0.05) b* value over all aging periods. Enhanced cow steaks were comparable with or superior to USDA Select steaks for tenderness and juiciness, but additional research is needed to determine consumer acceptability of additional flavors associated with enhancement of cow product and to improve the effects of enhancement on color of cow product.