Many experiments on rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) have been conducted to study how input variables (including tool rotation speed, ultrasonic power, feedrate, and abrasive size) affect output variables (such as cutting force, torque, surface roughness, and edge chipping) by using diamond tools. However, a literature review has revealed that there is no reported study on CBN tools in RUM. This paper, for the first time in literature, presents an investigation of RUM of stainless steel using CBN tools. Firstly, an introduction of superabrasive materials and RUM principle was provided. After presenting the experiment procedures and workpiece properties, it reports the results on tool wear, cutting force, torque, surface roughness in RUM of stainless. Finally, it discusses and compares the performances of diamond and CBN tools in RUM of stainless steel under certain conditions.