Comparison of asymptotically distribution-free procedures for the analysis of complete blocks

Ronald L. Iman, Stephen C. Hora, W. J. Conover

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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The Friedman test (or sign test when k = 2) depends entirely on within-block rankings. In a recent paper, Quade (1979) attempted to provide a test with more power than the Friedman test by considering a k-sample extension of the Wilcoxon signed ranks test. This is done by taking advantage of the between-block information. A third way to approach the problem and still retain both the within- and between-block information is first to transform all the observations to ranks from 1 to bk (b blocks and k treatments) and then to apply the parametric F test to the ranks. This approach is shown to be asymptotically distribution-free under suitable conditions. Computer simulation results indicate that this procedure is both robust and powerful for small sample sizes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)674-685
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the American Statistical Association
Issue number387
StatePublished - Sep 1984



  • Friedman test
  • Monte Carlo
  • Quade test
  • Randomized complete blocks
  • Rank transformation

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