Modern data analytic techniques, statistical and machine-learning algorithms have received widespread applications for solving oil and gas problems. As we face problems of parent–child well interactions, well spacing, and depletion concerns, it becomes necessary to model the effect of geology, completion design, and well parameters on production using models that can capture both spatial and temporal variability of the covariates on the response variable. We accomplish this using a well-formulated spatio-temporal (ST) model. In this paper, we present a multi-basin study of production performance evaluation and applications of ST models for oil and gas data. We analyzed dataset from 10,077 horizontal wells from 2008 to 2019 in five unconventional formations in the USA: Bakken, Marcellus, Eagleford, Wolfcamp, and Bone Spring formations. We evaluated well production performance and performance of new completions over time. Results show increased productivity of oil and gas since 2008. Also, the Bakken wells performed better for the counties evaluated. We present two methods for fitting spatio-temporal models: fixed rank kriging and ST generalized additive models using thin plate and cubic regression splines as basis functions in the spline-based smooths. Results show a significant effect on production by the smooth term, accounting for between 60 and 95% of the variability in the six-month production. Overall, we saw a better production response to completions for the gas formations compared to oil-rich plays. The results highlight the benefits of spatio-temporal models in production prediction as it implicitly accounts for geology and technological changes with time.
|Number of pages||20|
|Journal||Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology|
|State||Published - Dec 1 2020|
- Data analytics
- Fixed rank kriging (FRK)
- Spatio-temporal models
- Unconventional reservoirs