Closed-loop theory and long-term retention

Jack A. Adams, Philip H. Marshall, Norman W. Bray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Tested the closed-loop theory of paired-associate learning of J. A. Adams and N. N. Bray (see pa, vol. 45:1703) for forgetting implications. 4 groups of 48 undergradautes learned a list of 12 cvc-pairs and were tested for retention after 2 days or 2 wk. With or without special retrieval instructions on 8 trials. Results indicate that some of the forgetting can be ascribed to a weakening of mechanisms for recognizing stimulus terms, response terms, and natural language mediators. Instructions failed to influence retrieval. 41% of the missed responses were recovered after 2 days and 21% after 2 wk. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)242-250
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Experimental Psychology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Oct 1971


  • long-term retention of paired associates, J. Adams & N. Bray's closed-loop theory


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