Orange peel and orange pulp are by-products that are included in feedlot and dairy cattle diets because of their low cost and high nutritional quality. The antimicrobial activity of citrus oils has been reported previously. The present study was carried out to determine whether these citrus by-products exert antimicrobial effects on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium populations that are found in cattle gastrointestinal tracts. The growth of pure cultures (n = 3) of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium were reduced (p < 0.05) by addition of 2% (w/v) orange pulp and orange peel. Ruminal fluid was collected from cattle (n = 2) and E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella Typhimurium were added. The addition of orange pulp and peel to in vitro mixed ruminal microorganism fermentations (n = 3) demonstrated that both orange pulp and peel reduced E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium populations at least 2 log10 in mixed ruminal fluid fermentations. Addition of orange pulp reduced (p < 0.05) E. coli O157:H7 populations from 105 to 102 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL and Salmonella Typhimurium populations (p < 0.05) from 104 to 102 CFU/mL. These results indicate that orange pulp and/or peel included in ruminant diets could decrease ruminal populations of foodborne pathogenic bacteria. Further research is needed to determine whether the antimicrobial activity of orange products against E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella Typhimurium is expressed in the lower gastrointestinal tract.