Chronic Reproductive Toxicity of Perfluorooctane Sulfonic Acid and a Simple Mixture of Perfluorooctane Sulfonic Acid and Perfluorohexane Sulfonic Acid to Northern Bobwhite Quail (Colinus virginianus)

Nicole M. Dennis, Adcharee Karnjanapiboonwong, Seenivasan Subbiah, Justin N. Rewerts, Jennifer A. Field, Chris McCarthy, Christopher J. Salice, Todd A. Anderson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a broad class of environmentally persistent chemicals that include thousands of potentially toxic synthetic organic molecules. Some PFAS have been shown to cause adverse health effects including decreased total cholesterol, birth weight, and reproductive success in laboratory animals; however, a lack of chronic toxicity data exists for PFAS in avian ecological receptors. The present study reports on the chronic toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and a mixture of PFOS and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) to northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) via oral exposure from drinking water. Female weight gain was adversely affected at an average daily intake (ADI) of 3.10 × 10−3 ± 0.15 × 10−3 mg PFOS:PFHxS (1.2:1) mixture × kg−1 body weight × d−1. Successful liberation from the shell once pipped was adversely affected at an ADI of 2.45 × 10−3 ± 0.01 × 10−3 mg PFOS x kg−1 body weight × d−1. These values are comparatively much lower than the current dietary avian toxicity reference value (TRV) derived from birds that were exposed via feed, suggesting the need for updated avian TRVs. Relationships between test chemical (PFOS) and test substance (PFOS:PFHxS) showed that PFOS and PFHxS have possible interacting effects in avian receptors and likely differing mechanisms of toxicity depending on chemical co-occurrence and dose. Both the single-chemical and mixture exposures produced similar and possibly additive toxicity values. Environ Toxicol Chem 2020;39:1101–1111.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1101-1111
Number of pages11
JournalEnvironmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Volume39
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2020

Keywords

  • Avian receptors
  • Ecological risk assessment
  • Mixture toxicology
  • Reproductive endpoints
  • Stress response

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