Chronic estradiol-17β exposure suppresses hypothalamic norepinephrine release and the steroid-induced luteinizing hormone surge: Role of nitration of tyrosine hydroxylase

Badrinarayanan S. Kasturi, Sheba M.J. Mohankumar, Madhu P. Sirivelu, Andrew C. Shin, P. S. Mohankumar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations

Abstract

Chronic exposure to estrogens is known to produce a variety of deleterious effects in women including breast and ovarian cancer and anovulation. In female rats, exposure to low levels of estradiol-17β (E2) decreases hypothalamic norepinephrine (NE) to suppress luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and cause failure of ovulation. We hypothesized that E2 exposure most likely decreases NE release in the medial preoptic area (MPA) of the hypothalamus to produce this effect and that this may be due to E2-induced inflammatory changes in noradrenergic nuclei leading to nitration of an enzyme involved in NE synthesis. To test this, female Sprague Dawley rats were sham implanted or implanted with slow release E2 pellets (20 ng/day) for 30, 60 or 90 days (E30, E60 and E90 respectively). At the end of the treatment period, the rats were implanted with a push-pull cannula in the MPA, ovariectomized and steroid primied to induce a LH surge and subjected to push-pull perfusion. Perfusates were analyzed for NE levels using HPLC-EC. Blood samples collected simultaneously were analyzed for LH levels. We measured interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and nitrate levels in brainstem noradrenergic nuclei that innervate the MPA. In control animals, there was a marked increase in NE levels in response to steroid priming at 1600 h that was reduced in the E30 group, and completely abolished after 60 and 90 days of E2 exposure. LH profiles were similar to NE release profiles in control and E2-treated animals. We found that IL-1β levels increased in all three (A1, A2 and A6) noradrenergic nuclei with chronic E2 exposure, while nitrate levels increased only in the A6 region. There was an increase in the nitration of the NE synthesizing enzyme in the MPA in this group as well probably contributing to reduced NE synthesis. This could be a possible mechanism by which chronic E2 exposure decreases NE levels in the MPA to suppress the LH surge.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)90-98
Number of pages9
JournalBrain Research
Volume1493
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2013

Keywords

  • Estrogen
  • Interleukin-1β
  • Medial preoptic area
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Tyrosine hydroxylase

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