Charge collection and electrical characterization of neutron irradiated silicon pad detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter

N. Akchurin, P. Almeida, G. Altopp, M. Alyari, T. Bergauer, E. Brondolin, B. Burkle, W. D. Frey, Z. Gecse, U. Heintz, N. Hinton, V. Kuryatkov, R. Lipton, M. Mannelli, T. Mengke, P. Paulitsch, T. Peltola, F. Pitters, E. Sicking, E. SpencerM. Tripathi, M. V. Barreto Pinto, J. Voelker, Z. Wang, R. Yohay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The replacement of the existing endcap calorimeter in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector for the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), scheduled for 2027, will be a high granularity calorimeter. It will provide detailed position, energy, and timing information on electromagnetic and hadronic showers in the immense pileup of the HL-LHC. The High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) will use 120-, 200-, and 300-µm-thick silicon (Si) pad sensors as the main active material and will sustain 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluences up to about 1016 neq cm−2. In order to address the performance degradation of the Si detectors caused by the intense radiation environment, irradiation campaigns of test diode samples from 8-inch and 6-inch wafers were performed in two reactors. Characterization of the electrical and charge collection properties after irradiation involved both bulk polarities for the three sensor thicknesses. Since the Si sensors will be operated at −30C to reduce increasing bulk leakage current with fluence, the charge collection investigation of 30 irradiated samples was carried out with the infrared-TCT setup at −30C. TCAD simulation results at the lower fluences are in close agreement with the experimental results and provide predictions of sensor performance for the lower fluence regions not covered by the experimental study. All investigated sensors display 60% or higher charge collection efficiency at their respective highest lifetime fluences when operated at 800 V, and display above 90% at the lowest fluence, at 600 V. The collected charge close to the fluence of 1016 neq cm−2 exceeds 1 fC at voltages beyond 800 V.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberP09031
JournalJournal of Instrumentation
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2020


  • Charge transport
  • Detector modelling and simulations II
  • Electric fields
  • Electron emission etc
  • Multiplication and induction
  • Pad detectors
  • Pulse formation
  • Radiation-hard detectors
  • Si microstrip


Dive into the research topics of 'Charge collection and electrical characterization of neutron irradiated silicon pad detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this