Characterization of serotonin following exposure to antibiotics in white-tailed deer

Audrey Martinez, Seenivasan Subbiah, Paul Stonum, Tiffanie Brooks, Shanoy Anderson, Odia Osemwegie, Ernest E. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Developing baseline concentrations of serotonin in healthy white-tailed deer will allow for the development of a biomarker using non-invasive sample tissues in sick animals, for example, non-clinical cases of chronic wasting disease. It will also allow some further insight into whether the use of antibiotics as growth promoters (AGP), such as chlortetracycline, is affecting serotonin concentrations in white-tailed deer. Florfenicol and tulathromycin impacts on serotonin concentration changes were also investigated. An analytical method for the detection and confirmation of serotonin, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), in white-tailed deer tissues was developed and validated. Serum and urine samples were extracted with acetonitrile. Liquid chromatography separation was attained on a Phenomenex C18 column with a Security Guard ULTRA guard column with gradient elution using a mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid in water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile. This methodology was applied to baseline (control), chlortetracycline (CTC) treated, florfenicol treated and tulathromycin treated white-tailed deer serum and urine samples.

Original languageEnglish
Article number113265
JournalGeneral and Comparative Endocrinology
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020


  • 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)
  • Antibiotics
  • Gut microbiota
  • Neurotransmitters
  • Serotonin
  • White-tailed deer


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