Changes in total and segmental bioelectrical resistance are correlated with whole-body and segmental changes in lean soft tissue following a resistance training intervention

Grant M. Tinsley, Patrick S. Harty, M. Lane Moore, Jozo Grgic, Analiza M. Silva, Luis B. Sardinha

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4 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Raw bioelectrical values can be used to assess physiological outcomes, though limited information is available concerning the relationships between changes in these values and changes in other variables of interest. Methods: This investigation quantified the relationships between total and segmental changes in raw bioelectrical variables (i.e., resistance, reactance, and phase angle) and corresponding whole-body and segmental changes in independently assessed body composition. Resistance-trained females (n = 31, body mass index: 22.8 ± 2.6 kg/m2, body fat: 28 ± 6%) completed eight weeks of supervised resistance training. Before and after the intervention, body composition was assessed via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE® Lunar Prodigy), and raw bioelectrical variables were assessed via 8-point multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (Seca® mBCA 515/514) at 19 frequencies ranging from 1 to 1000 kHz. Results: Lean soft tissue of the whole body (+ 3.2% [2.1, 4.4]; mean [95% confidence interval]) and each body segment (+ 2.8 to 6.3%) increased as a result of the intervention. Group-level changes in total (-2.4% [-5.2, 0.3]) and segmental fat mass were not statistically significant. Significant decreases in total resistance (-2.1% [-3.7,-0.6] at 50 kHz) and increases in phase angle (+ 4.2% [2.5, 5.9] at 50 kHz) were observed, with minimal changes in reactance and varying changes in segmental values. Moderate to strong negative correlations (0.63 ≤ |r| ≤ 0.83, p ≤ 0.001) were found between changes in lean soft tissue and changes in resistance for the whole body, trunk, and arms. No significant correlations were identified between changes in fat mass or bone mineral content and changes in any bioelectrical variable. Conclusions: Total and segmental changes in resistance were associated with corresponding total and segmental changes in lean soft tissue following a resistance training intervention, while fewer associations were identified between changes in other bioelectrical parameters (i.e., reactance and phase angle) and body composition variables (e.g., fat mass and bone mineral content). Measurement frequency and body segment appeared to influence the presence and strength relationships between bioelectrical and body composition variables. These findings suggest that researchers and practitioners utilizing bioimpedance technology may benefit from examining raw resistance values to enhance detection of physiological adaptations to exercise interventions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number58
JournalJournal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Volume16
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 29 2019

Keywords

  • Bioelectrical impedance analysis
  • Phase angle
  • Reactance
  • Resistance
  • Resistance exercise
  • Resistance training

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