Background: Previous research indicates that individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) are at risk for poor diet quality. Objective: The purpose of this secondary analysis was to determine whether two different weight-loss diets affect energy intake, macronutrient intake, and diet quality as measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) during a 6-month weight-loss period and 12-month weight-management period, and to examine differences in energy intake, macronutrient intake, and HEI-2010 between groups. Design: Overweight/obese adults with IDDs took part in an 18-month randomized controlled trial and were assigned to either an enhanced Stop Light Diet utilizing portion-controlled meals or a conventional diet consisting of reducing energy intake and following the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Proxy-assisted 3-day food records were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 18 months, and were analyzed using Nutrition Data System for Research software. HEI-2010 was calculated using the data from Nutrition Data System for Research. Participants/setting: The study took place from June 2011 through May 2014 in the greater Kansas City metropolitan area. Main outcome measures: This was a secondary analysis of a weight-management intervention for adults with IDDs randomized to an enhanced Stop Light Diet or conventional diet, to examine differences in energy intake, macronutrient intake, and HEI-2010 across time and between groups. Statistical analyses performed: Independent- and paired-samples t tests and general mixed modeling for repeated measures were performed to examine group differences and changes at baseline, 6 months, and 18 months between the enhanced Stop Light Diet and conventional diet groups. Results: One hundred and forty six participants (57% female, mean±standard deviation age=36.2±12.0 years) were randomized to either the enhanced Stop Light Diet or conventional diet group (77 enhanced Stop Light Diet, 69 conventional diet) and provided data for analysis at baseline, 124 completed the 6-month weight-loss period, and 101 completed the 18-month study. Participants on the enhanced Stop Light Diet diet significantly reduced energy intake at 6 and 18 months (both P<0.001), but those on the conventional diet did not (both P=0.13). However, when accounting for age, sex, race, education level, and support level (mild vs moderate IDD), there was a significant decrease during the 18-month intervention in energy intake for the enhanced Stop Light Diet and conventional diet groups combined (P<0.01 for time effect), but no significant group difference in this change (P=0.39 for group-by-time interaction). There was no significant change in total HEI-2010 score at 6 and 18 months (P=0.05 and P=0.38 for the enhanced Stop Light Diet group; P=0.22 and P=0.17 for the conventional diet group), and no significant group difference at 6 and 18 months (P=0.08 and P=0.42). However, when participants’ age, sex, race, education level, and support level were accounted for, mixed modeling indicated a significant increase in total HEI-2010 scores for the enhanced Stop Light Diet and conventional diet groups combined during the 18-month intervention (P=0.01 for time effect). Conclusions: The results of this study found that after controlling for demographic factors, individuals with IDDs can decrease their energy intake and increase their diet quality, with no significant differences between the enhanced Stop Light Diet and conventional diet groups.
- Energy intake
- Healthy Eating Index
- Intellectual and developmental disability
- Stop Light Diet
- Weight management