Biosynthesis of phytosterols: Kinetic mechanism for the enzymatic C-methylation of sterols

W. David Nes, Zhihong Song, Allen L. Dennis, Wenxu Zhou, Jaewook Nam, Matthew B. Miller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

51 Scopus citations

Abstract

Cloned soybean sterol methyltransferase was purified from Escherichia coli to gel electrophoretic homogeneity. From initial velocity experiments, catalytic constants for substrates best suited for the first and second C 1 transfer activities, cycloartenol and 24(28)-methylenelophenol, were 0.01 and 0.001 s-1, respectively. Two-substrate kinetic analysis using cycloartenol and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) generated an intersecting line pattern characteristic of a ternary complex kinetic mechanism. The high energy intermediate analog 25-azacycloartanol was a noncompetitive inhibitor versus cycloartenol and an uncompetitive inhibitor versus AdoMet. The dead end inhibitor analog cyclolaudenol was competitive versus cycloartenol and uncompetitive versus AdoMet. 24(28)-Methylenecycloartanol and AdoHcy generated competitive and noncompetitive kinetic patterns, respectively, with respect to AdoMet. Therefore, 24(28)-methylenecycloartanol combines with the same enzyme form as does cycloartenol and must be released from the enzyme before AdoHcy. 25-Azacycloartanol inhibited the first and second C1 transfer activities with about equal efficacy (Ki = 45 nM), suggesting that the successive C-methylation of the Δ24 bond occurs at the same active center. Comparison of the initial velocity data using AdoMet versus [2H3-methyl]AdoMet as substrates tested against saturating amounts of cycloartenol indicated an isotope effect on V CH3/VCD3 close to unity. [25- 2H]24(28)-Methylenecycloartanol, [28E-2H]24 (28)-methylenelanosterol, and [28Z-2H]24(28)-methylenelanosterol were prepared and paired with AdoMet or [methyl-3H 3]AdoMet to examine the kinetic isotope effects attending the C-28 deprotonation in the enzymatic synthesis of 24-ethyl(idene) sterols. The stereochemical features as well as the observation of isotopically sensitive branching during the second C-methylation suggests that the two methylation steps can proceed by a change in chemical mechanism resulting from differences in sterol structure, concerted versus carbocation; the kinetic mechanism remains the same during the consecutive methylation of the Δ24 bond.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)34505-34516
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume278
Issue number36
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 5 2003

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