Microfabricated organs-on-chips consist of tissue-engineered 3D in vitro models, which rely on engineering design and provide the physiological context of human organs. Recently, significant effort has been devoted to the creation of a biomimetic cardiac system by using microfabrication techniques. By applying allometric scaling laws, microengineered cardiac systems simulating arterial flow, pulse properties, and architectural environments have been implemented, allowing high-throughput pathophysiological experiments and drug screens. In this review, we illustrate the recent trends in cardiac microsystems with emphasis on cardiac pumping and valving functions. We report problems and solutions brought to light by existing organs-on-chip models and discuss future directions of the field. We also describe the needs and desired design features that will enable the control of mechanical, electrical, and chemical environments to generate functional in vitro cardiac disease models.
- cardiac microsystem
- drug screens
- high-throughput microfluidic device