Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ethyl esters are of interest given their clinical approval for lowering circulating triglycerides and cardiometabolic disease risk. EPA ethyl esters prevent metabolic complications driven by a high fat diet in male mice; however, their impact on female mice is less studied. Herein, we first investigated how EPA influences the metabolic profile of female C57BL/6J mice consuming a high fat diet. EPA lowered murine fat mass accumulation, potentially through increased biosynthesis of 8-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (HEPE), as revealed by mass spectrometry and cell culture studies. EPA also reversed the effects of a high fat diet on circulating levels of insulin, glucose, and select inflammatory/metabolic markers. Next, we studied if the improved metabolic profile of obese mice consuming EPA was associated with a reduction in the abundance of key gut Gram-negative bacteria that contribute toward impaired glucose metabolism. Using fecal 16S-ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, we found EPA restructured the gut microbiota in a time-dependent manner but did not lower the levels of key Gram-negative bacteria. Interestingly, EPA robustly increased the abundance of the Gram-negative Akkermansia muciniphila, which controls glucose homeostasis. Finally, predictive functional profiling of microbial communities revealed EPA-mediated reversal of high fat diet-associated changes in a wide range of genes related to pathways such as Th-17 cell differentiation and PI3K-Akt signaling. Collectively, these results show that EPA ethyl esters prevent some of the deleterious effects of a high fat diet in female mice, which may be mediated mechanistically through 8-HEPE and the upregulation of intestinal Akkermansia muciniphila.
|Journal||Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids|
|State||Published - Jan 2022|
- N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids