Behavior maintained by intravenous injection of codeine, cocaine, and etorphine in the rhesus macaque and the pigtail macaque

Alice M. Young, James H. Woods

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Lever-pressing behavior of two species of macaque, the rhesus macaque (M. mulatta) and the pigtail macaque (M. nemestrina) was maintained by intravenous injection of codeine, etorphine, or cocaine. Monkeys responded under a fixed-ratio 30 timeout 600 s schedule of drug injection during two daily experimental sessions. Drug-maintained behavior was studied under two access conditions. Under the first condition, selected doses of codeine or cocaine were available for ten consecutive sessions. Under the second condition, responding was maintained by 0.32 mg/kg codeine or 0.32 mg/kg cocaine, and saline and selected doses of codeine, etorphine, and cocaine were substituted during single experimental sessions. Performance varied with drug and injection dose, access condition, and macaque species. For all three drugs, response rate increased and then decreased as injection dose increased. Maximal rates were maintained by 0.10-0.32 mg/kg codeine, 0.0003-0.001 mg/kg etorphine, and 0.10-0.32 mg/kg cocaine. A cocaine dose of 0.32 mg/kg maintained higher rates than any dose of codeine or etorphine, and maintained higher rates when available during consecutive sessions than when substituted for codeine for a single session. Codeine maintained similar rates under all access conditions. The pigtail macaques had short catheter lives, did not readily acquire codeine-maintained responding, and displayed lower rates of drug-maintained lever pressing than the rhesus macaques.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)263-271
Number of pages9
Issue number3
StatePublished - Oct 1980


  • Cocaine
  • Codeine
  • Drug self-administration
  • Etorphine
  • Fixed-ratio schedule
  • Pigtail macaques
  • Rhesus macaques


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