Behavior and welfare

Anna K. Johnson, Jessica D. Colpoys, Lily N. Edwards-Callaway, Michelle Calvo-Lorenzo, John J. McGlone, Suzanne T. Millman, Christina E. Phillips, Matthew J. Ritter, Mhairi A. Sutherland, Anita L. Tucker, Sherrie R. Webb

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


In 1965 the Brambell Commission was formed to determine what components are essential to ensuring animal welfare in livestock species. In 1979, the Farm Animal Welfare Council revised the Brambell Commission recommendations and created the “five freedoms.” The “five freedoms” serve as the basis for many of the livestock welfare educational, assessment, and third-party auditing programs and regulations globally. The five freedoms include the critical aspects of biological functioning, nature-based measures, and affective states. When a veterinarian is assessing animal welfare, they will seek to determine if it is exhibiting normal behaviors. It is necessary to have a concept of what behaviors a feral or wild pig may choose to engage in and how this may be relevant to the domesticated pig. While the stress response is essential for animal survival and biological function, it can antagonize swine production goals such as feed efficiency, growth, carcass quality, and welfare.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationDiseases of Swine
Number of pages25
ISBN (Electronic)9781119350927
ISBN (Print)9781119350859
StatePublished - Mar 29 2019


  • Affective states
  • Animal survival
  • Biological functioning
  • Five freedoms
  • Nature-based measures
  • Stress response
  • Swine welfare


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