Bar and restaurant workers' attitudes towards norway's comprehensive smoking ban: A growth curve analysis

Marc T. Braverman, Leif Edvard Aar̈, Daniel E. Bontempo, J̈rn Hetland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Background: Norway passed legislation banning smoking in restaurants, bars and other public spaces in 2004. This study tracks changes in hospitality workers' attitudes towards Norway's ban over three time points, using growth modelling analysis to examine predictors of attitude change. Methods: Participants were a national sample of 1525 bar and restaurant workers. Surveys were conducted, by phone or internet, one month before the ban's implementation and at 4 and 12 months thereafter. Exploratory principal components analysis of nine survey items revealed one primary attitude component. A latent growth model was fitted to the data to examine trajectories of attitude change and individual differences in rate of change. Results: Respondents supported the ban before implementation and increased support at 4 months (p1=40.021) and again at 12 months (p1=40.001). Concern for one's job followed a quadratic trend, increasing at 4 months and decreasing at 12 months (p<0.001). All demographic categories were associated with attitude increase; rate of increase was greater for females than males. Two within-person variablesdchange in smoking status and change in job concerndstrongly predicted (p<0.001) respondents' deviations from their predicted group trajectories, explaining over 70% of residual between-person slope variance. Conclusions: Norway's hospitality workers increased their support of the ban over its first year. The strong influence of the within-person variables leads to two primary policy recommendations. First, support should be provided to assist cessation efforts and prevent relapse. Second, informational campaigns should inform hospitality workers about evidence that smoking bans are not economic threats to the industry.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)240-247
Number of pages8
JournalTobacco Control
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2010


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