Azole antifungal sensitivity of sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) and CYP5218 from malassezia globosa

Andrew G.S. Warrilow, Claire L. Price, Josie E. Parker, Nicola J. Rolley, Christopher J. Smyrniotis, David D. Hughes, Vera Thoss, W. David Nes, Diane E. Kelly, Theodore R. Holman, Steven L. Kelly

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Abstract

Malassezia globosa cytochromes P450 CYP51 and CYP5218 are sterol 14α-demethylase (the target of azole antifungals) and a putative fatty acid metabolism protein (and a potential azole drug target), respectively. Lanosterol, eburicol and obtusifoliol bound to CYP51 with K d values of 32, 23 and 28 μM, respectively, catalyzing sterol 14α-demethylation with respective turnover numbers of 1.7 min-1, 5.6 min-1 and 3.4 min-1. CYP5218 bound a range of fatty acids with linoleic acid binding strongest (K d 36 μM), although no metabolism could be detected in reconstitution assays or role in growth on lipids. Clotrimazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, voriconazole and ketaminazole bound tightly to CYP51 (K d ≤ 2 to 11 nM). In contrast, fluconazole did not bind to CYP5218, voriconazole and ketaminazole bound weakly (K d ∼107 and ∼12 μM), whereas ketoconazole, clotrimazole and itraconazole bound strongest to CYP5218 (K d ∼1.6, 0.5 and 0.4 μM) indicating CYP5218 to be only a secondary target of azole antifungals. IC 50 determinations confirmed M. globosa CYP51 was strongly inhibited by azole antifungals (0.15 to 0.35 μM). MIC 100 studies showed itraconazole should be considered as an alternative to ketoconazole given the potency and safety profiles and the CYP51 assay system can be used in structure-activity studies in drug development.

Original languageEnglish
Article number27690
JournalScientific reports
Volume6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 13 2016

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