Avian response to a turf application of triumph® 4E

Larry W. Brewer, Crystal J. Driver, Ronald J. Kendall, Thomas E. Lacher, Janine C. Galindo, Gary W. Dickson

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16 Scopus citations


A field study was conducted to assess the hazard presented by Triumph® 4E insecticide applied to turf at 5 kg a.i./ha to free‐ranging birds during the breeding season. The occurrence, distribution, activity and habitat use of birds were monitored on treated and untreated portions of a golf course before and after chemical application. In addition, avian mortality and nesting success were recorded. Residues of Triumph 4E were measured in water, turf and invertebrate samples. Six bird species were more frequently observed following application. Triumph 4E‐contaminated mole crickets (Scapteriscus vicinus) (mean, 0.32 ppm, a.i.) that surfaced after treatments were a food source for the birds. At least three of the six species whose numbers increased on the treated field (common grackle, Quiscalus quiscula: boat‐tailed grackle, Quiscalus major; and northern mockingbird, Mimus polyglottus) appeared to be attracted to dead or impaired mole crickets. No increases in bird mortality or other adverse effects in reproductive performance were evident.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)391-401
Number of pages11
JournalEnvironmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1988


  • Avian field study
  • Organophosphate
  • Reproduction Nesting
  • Triumph® 4E


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