Augmented auditory information in the control of upper-limb prostheses

Patrick Patterson, Charles H. Shea

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The present study compared the effects of augmented auditory information on the linear positioning performance of individuals with natural or prosthetic limbs. Subjects were ten male volunteers, five of whom had above-elbow amputations and had used their prosthetic devices for an average of 8.3 years. The other five subjects were selected from a volunteer pool. Movements were made and measured on a standard linear slide whose cursor had a pulsing infrared diode attached opposite the subject. An infrared camera and microprocessor translated diode movement into a corresponding change in voltage. The voltage was simultaneously applied to an audio device which supplied the augmented feedback. The movement of the cursor by the subject was paralleled by a linearly-related change in audible frequency (Hz). The subjects performed 15 trials at each of three retentions (immediate, 15-sec filled, and 15 sec unfilled), both with and without the augmented feedback, for a total of 90 trials. The results of group × feedback × retention intervals analysis of variance on absolute and variable error indicated both a group × retention and a group × feedback interaction. Subjects using a prosthetic limb to produce the movement were less accurate and more variable than the "normal" subjects when augmented feedback was not concurrent with response.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)243-245
Number of pages3
JournalArchives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1985


  • Amputees
  • Feedback
  • Movement
  • Prosthesis


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