The ability to attend and to exercise cognitive control are vital aspects of human adaptability. Several studies indicate that attention training using computer based exercises can lead to improved attention in children and adults. Randomized control studies of exposure to nature, mindfulness and integrative body-mind training (IBMT) yield improved attention and self-regulation. Here, we ask how attention training and attention state training might be similar and different in their training methods, neural mechanisms and behavioral outcomes. Together these various methods lead to practical ways of improving attention and self-regulation.