Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source. 2. Desorption-ionization for the direct analysis of solid compounds

Francisco J. Andrade, Jacob T. Shelley, William C. Wetzel, Michael R. Webb, Gerardo Gamez, Steven J. Ray, Gary M. Hieftje

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The flowing afterglow-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) ionization source described in part 1 of this study (in this issue) is applied to the direct analysis of condensed-phase samples. When either liquids or solids are exposed to the ionizing beam of the APGD, strong signals for the molecular ions of substances present on their surfaces can be detected without compromising the integrity of the solid sample structure or sample substrate. As was observed for gas-phase compounds in part 1 of this study, both polar and nonpolar substances can be ionized and detected by mass spectrometry. The parent molecular ion (or its protonated counterpart) is usually the main spectral feature, with little or no fragmentation in evidence. Preliminary quantitative results show that this approach offers very good sensitivity (detection limits in the picogram regime are reported for several test compounds in part 1 of this study) and linear response to the analyte concentration. Examples of the application of this strategy to the analysis of real-world samples, such as the direct analysis of pharmaceutical compounds or foods is provided. The ability of this source to perform spatially resolved analysis is also demonstrated. Preliminary studies of the mechanisms of the reactions involved are described.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2654-2663
Number of pages10
JournalAnalytical Chemistry
Issue number8
StatePublished - Apr 15 2008


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