Assessment of Mammary Gland Secretions to Predict Foaling

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Serial monitoring of electrolyte concentrations of calcium, sodium, and/or potassium in pre-foaling mammary secretions can help assess fetal maturation and a mare's readiness to foal in normal pregnancies. The mare should be adequately restrained to allow for sampling of secretions from her udder. There are several commercial kits available for on-farm or in-clinic use to measure the calcium content of the milk. This chapter discusses the step by step procedure for calcium testing of milk and sodium/potassium testing of milk, and the equipment and supplies needed. A milk sample must be sent to a diagnostic laboratory for the measurement of sodium and potassium content.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEquine Reproductive Procedures
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)9781118904398
ISBN (Print)9780470960394
StatePublished - Aug 25 2014


  • Calcium content testing
  • Foaling
  • Mammary gland secretions
  • Mare
  • Sodium/potassium testing


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