Acute kidney injury can be induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen and diclofenac. In seeking to identify functional foods with a positive effect beyond basic nutrition, the antioxidant-rich artichoke (Cynara scolymus L., Asteraceae) inflorescence was biochemical investigated for nephroprotective activity. The edible artichoke head scales contain phenolic acids, flavones, and glycosidic flavones in both organic and aqueous extracts. While ibuprofen and diclofenac exposure caused significant increases in serum creatinine, urea, and malondialdehyde as well as decreases in glutathione and prostaglandin E2 content in rat kidney tissue, this trend was reversed in the presence of artichoke extracts. Histochemical analysis showed increased renal cyclooxygenase-2 expression and potentiated PGE2 biosynthesis degradation with ibuprofen and diclofenac treatment that was as well ameliorated by artichoke extracts in a dose-dependent manner. This study provides biochemical data that head scale extracts reduce symptoms associated with ibuprofen and diclofenac-induced acute kidney injury with possible signaling mechanisms discussed.
- Artichoke phenolics quantifications
- Oxidative stress