Antimicrobial susceptibility and internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in vacuum-tumbled marinated beef products

S. Pokharel, J. C. Brooks, J. N. Martin, M. M. Brashears

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


As the incidence of multidrug resistance (MDR) Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is increasing, data regarding the antimicrobial interventions and pathogen internalization in marinated meat products are important. This study evaluated the antimicrobial intervention and internalization of Salm. Typhimurium in marinated beef sirloin steaks. Beef bottom sirloin flaps (IMPS #185A; USDA Select) inoculated (108 log10 CFU ml−1) with Salm. Typhimurium were sprayed (lactic acid (4%) and buffered vinegar (2%)) prior to vacuum-tumbled marination (0·35% sodium chloride and 0·45% sodium tripolyphosphate) for 30 min. Pathogen presence after antimicrobial spray, vacuum-tumbled marination, and translocation was determined by direct plating on Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate (XLD) agar with tryptic soy agar (TSA) overlay. The data imply varied internalization and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salm. Typhimurium in marinated meat. Lactic acid (4%) spray (P < 0·0001) and buffered vinegar (2%; P < 0·0001) reduced surface populations of Salm. Typhimurium on inoculated beef sirloin flaps prior to vacuum marination. However, lactic acid treated sirloin flaps had greater reductions (~2 log10CFU cm−2) than buffered vinegar when compared with control prior to vacuum marination. However, the translocation of Salm. Typhimurium following vacuum marination was not influenced (P < 0·333) by the application of a surface organic acid spray prior to marination. Significance and Impact of the Study: As detailed in the Federal Register FSIS final rule (9 CFR part 317), vacuum-marinated, vacuum-tumbled meat products are not designated as ‘mechanically tenderized’. As such, the internalization and potential survival of Salmonella spp. in marinated beef products is a major concern. These results highlight the internalization of pathogens in vacuum-tumbled meat products and emphasize the importance of considering these products as nonintact. Similarly, these data confirm the efficacy and utility of interventions prior to vacuum-tumbled marination. Further research is needed to identify additional strategies to mitigate internalization and translocation of pathogens into vacuum-marinated meat products.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)412-418
Number of pages7
JournalLetters in Applied Microbiology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1 2016


  • Salmonella
  • beef
  • internalization
  • lactic acid
  • marination
  • nonintact
  • vinegar


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