Antigen-Specific Tolerization and Targeted Delivery as Therapeutic Strategies for Autoimmune Diseases

Akhilesh Kumar Shakya, Kutty Selva Nandakumar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


The prevalence of autoimmune disorders is increasing steadily and there is no permanent cure available. Immunomodulation through repeated exposure of antigens, known as antigen-specific immune tolerance or antigen-specific immunotherapy (ASI), is a promising approach to treat or prevent autoimmune disorders. Different optimization protocols (immunization routes, delivery systems, and approaches) are being developed to implement ASI against self-proteins. Including appropriate adjuvants, altered peptide ligand, and using multipeptides are approaches that can be used to specifically target autoimmunity. This review explores various ASI application methods, including different routes of antigen-specific sensitization, delivery systems, immunomodulators containing specific antigens, and other targeted approaches that have been successfully demonstrated to have therapeutic effects on autoimmune diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)686-699
Number of pages14
JournalTrends in Biotechnology
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2018


  • antigen delivery systems
  • antigen-specific immune tolerance
  • autoimmune diseases
  • routes of administration


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