Antibacterial efficacy and cytotoxicity of low intensity direct current activated silver–titanium implant system prototype

Zhuo Tan, Edward A. Havell, Paul E. Orndorff, Rohan A. Shirwaiker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

Silver-based devices activated by electric current are of interest in biomedicine because of their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. This study investigates the in vitro antibacterial efficacy and cytotoxicity of a low intensity direct current (LIDC)-activated silver–titanium implant system prototype designed for localized generation and delivery of silver ions at the implantation site. First, the antibacterial efficacy of the system was assessed against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) over 48 h at current levels of 3 and 6 µA in Mueller–Hinton broth. The cytotoxicity of the system was then evaluated over 48 h in two phases using an in vitro model with in which the activated electrodes were suspended in growth medium in a cell-seeded tissue culture plate. In phase-1, the system was tested on human osteosarcoma (MG-63) cell line and compared to titanium controls. In phase-2, the cytotoxicity characteristics were validated with normal human diploid osteoblast cells. The LIDC-activated system demonstrated high antimicrobial efficacy against MRSA, but was also toxic to human cells immediately surrounding the electrodes. The statistical analysis showed that the cytotoxicity was a result of the presence of silver, and the electric activation did not make it worse.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)113-125
Number of pages13
JournalBioMetals
Volume30
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2017

Keywords

  • Antimicrobial efficacy
  • Cytotoxicity
  • Low intensity direct current
  • Orthopaedic application
  • Silver–titanium implant

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