Analytical Approach to Microwave Orientations Based on a Strongly Coupled Array

Hao Wang, Fazhong Shen, Xiaokang Qi, Mei Zhang, Jun Wang, Bin Zhang, Changzhi Li, Lixin Ran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


With the rapid progress of radio frequency (RF) and baseband integrated circuits, there are strong demands to minimize the dimension of array-based microwave systems, including orientation systems. However, miniaturizing array apertures will result in strong mutual coupling. To date, realizing microwave orientations in the presence of strong mutual coupling remains a technical challenge. In this article, we theoretically analyzed and experimentally demonstrated that this challenge can be overcome by deriving forward equations based on a hybrid equivalent circuit model and solving such equations by a backpropagation optimization. Different from conventional circuit equivalence, this hybrid equivalence integrates the modeling of incident fields, coupled array, and RF channels. Full-wave simulations and experiments based on a visualized UHF-band prototype verified the effectiveness. This approach can be further used in coupled array-based beamsteering, forming, and nulling applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9093200
Pages (from-to)3898-3907
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2020


  • BP optimization
  • coupled array
  • equivalent circuit
  • microwave orientation
  • virtualization


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