Analysis of Glucose Levels in Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19 During the First Phase of This Pandemic in West Texas

Sanjana Rao, Kiran Ali, Jeff Dennis, Gilbert Berdine, Victor Test, Kenneth Nugent

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Patients with hyperglycemia during hospitalization, especially during ICU hospitalizations, often have worse outcomes, even if they do not have a premorbid diagnosis of diabetes. High glucose levels can provide insight into the underlying pathogenesis of a disease and can contribute to tissue injury. Some patients with COVID-19 have hyperglycemia during hospitalizations. Methods: The Infectious Disease and Control office at University Medical Center in Lubbock, Texas, provided a list of patients with a COVID-19 infection hospitalized between March 1 and May 15, 2020. The medical records were reviewed to collect information on age, gender, history of diabetes, and glucose levels on admission and through the first 7 days of hospitalization. Results: This study included 63 patients with a mean age of 62.1 ± 14.1 years. Thirty-five patients (55.6%) were males. The in-hospital mortality rate was 30.2%. The mean admission glucose level was 129.4 ± 57.1 mg/dL in patients who survived (N = 47) and 189.6 ± 112.2 mg/dL in patients who died during hospitalization (N = 16, P =.007). An admission glucose greater than 180 mg/dL predicted mortality in a model adjusted for a diabetes, age, and male gender. The mean differences between the maximum and minimum glucose levels calculated over the first 7 days of hospitalization were 112.93 ± 115.4 (N = 47) in patients who survived and were 240.5 ± 97.7 (N = 15) in patients who died during hospitalization (P =.0003). A difference between the maximum and minimum glucose level greater than 105 mg/dL was associated with increased mortality. Conclusions: Patients who died during hospitalization for COVID-19 had higher admission glucose levels than patients who survived. Larger differences between maximum and minimum glucose levels during the first 7 days of hospitalization were associated with increased mortality. These results suggest that high glucose levels identify patients at increased risk for mortality and warrant more study.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Primary Care and Community Health
Volume11
DOIs
StatePublished - 2020

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • glucose
  • glucose variability
  • mortality
  • outcomes

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