Electric pulse driven membrane poration finds applications in the fields of biomedical engineering and drug/gene delivery. Shock waves are known to permeabilize cell membranes as well. Here we focus on and analyze the synergistic effects of both inputs in concert based on molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show that shockwaves could be used for pretreating cell membranes for electroporation. The dual strategy would either reduce the external voltage requirements (leading to more compact external circuitry) or help create larger pores. Furthermore, shockwaves could form pores at any desired membrane site location, and suitable combinations of nanojets and electric pulses would help control the aspect ratio and size as desired.
- cellular uptake
- molecular dynamics