An MMPI-2 scale to detect malingered depression (Md scale)

Jarrod S. Steffan, James R. Clopton, Robert D. Morgan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


A specialized Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) validity scale was constructed to detect individuals who are knowledgeable about either depression or MMPI-2 detection strategies and who subsequently attempt to malinger depressive symptoms on the MMPI-2. The Malingered Depression (Md) scale consists of 32 items that discriminated college students who feigned depression from those who were genuinely depressed. Further information about the incremental validity and the utility of the Md scale was obtained in a cross-validation study with additional college students who feigned depression and a sample of students with clinically significant depressive symptoms. The results indicate that the Md scale possesses promising value in detecting malingered symptoms of depression.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)382-392
Number of pages11
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2003


  • Depression
  • Faking
  • Forensic evaluation
  • MMPI-2
  • Malingering
  • Test validity


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