During periods of drought, good-quality water becomes a precious commodity, especially in those parts of the United States that receive little rainfall. One way to reduce the demand for drinking water is to substitute non-drinking-quality water in earthwork construction. If nonpotable water from local sources can be used in construction, then the need for hauling in good-quality water from distant sources and the potential for construction delays because of water rationing can be avoided. A research study investigated the feasibility of using alternative water sources in earthwork construction. As a part of this study, alternative water supplies in Texas were identified and characterized for quality and volume availability. In addition, each proposed water source was evaluated to determine whether there were any adverse environmental impacts from its use in earthwork construction. Potential impact from the use of low-quality water on constructability, material behavior, and performance also were evaluated. Of special interest were the effects on corrosive potential, sulfate heave, and dispersion potential of the soil. Simple predictive models are presented to help when decisions are made regarding acceptance or rejection of water obtained from a specific source.