This study examined the development of school performance-related beliefs and their link with actual academic performance in Moscow children (Grades 2-6, N = 551) using the Control, Agency and Means-Ends Interview (CAMI). Results revealed much intercultural convergence with Western samples, coupled with context-specific variations. Similarities involved (a) the CAMI factor structure, (b) the correlational nexus between beliefs and performance, (c) the developmental trends, and (d) the configuration of means-ends beliefs. Differences involved beliefs about teachers and ability, and gender differences, favoring girls, in the agency and control beliefs. In general, Moscow children displayed a Westernlike view of the causes of school performance and of themselves as being agentic and capable of personal control over their performance outcomes.