Age-dependent effects in fathead minnows from the anti-diabetic drug metformin.

Jordan Crago, Cindy Bui, Sanji Grewal, Daniel Schlenk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The anti-diabetic drug metformin is thought to be the pharmaceutical most deposited into the aquatic environment by mass at up to 6 tons per year from individual WWTPs in urban areas. Recent studies have shown that exposure to 40 ug/L of metformin increased the relative expression of the egg yolk precursor protein vitellogenin in adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) (FHM). For this study, the expression of several other genes involved in estrogen biosynthesis, clearance and downstream effects were assessed in FHM after treatment to three concentrations of metformin, to better understand the estrogenic effects of metformin on FHM. In contrast to the previous study, although upward trends were observed, metformin failed to significantly alter the expression of VTG, ERα, GnRH3, and CYP3A126 in adult male FHM. However, a concentration-dependent response to metformin was observed in younger 80–90 day juvenile FHM. A 17.7-, 22-, and 22-fold increase in the relative expression of
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)185*190
JournalGeneral and Comparative Endicrinology
StatePublished - Jun 2016


Dive into the research topics of 'Age-dependent effects in fathead minnows from the anti-diabetic drug metformin.'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this